Storia

Le repubbliche marinare: quali sono e quale ruolo ebbero nel Medioevo?

Le quattro repubbliche marine Pisa, Venezia, Genova e Amalfi, avranno un ruolo rilevante nel corso del Medioevo, promuovendo gli scambi commerciali con il resto dell’Europa e dando una prima forma di indipendenza al popolo, facendo emergere la figura dei mercanti. Vediamo come si svilupparono le repubbliche marinare e come si modifica la vita nel corso del Medioevo.

repubbliche marinare

Le città marinare: come e perché si sviluppano

Durante il Medioevo con l’aumento della popolazione aumenta la richiesta di cibi e beni di prima necessità, ecco perché durante l’XI secolo si intensificano gli scambi commerciali specie tra il Mediterraneo, il Mare del Nord e il Mar Baltico. Punto nevralgico dei commerci sono le quattro città marinare di Amalfi, Pisa, Venezia e Genova che nel Medioevo si affermano come repubbliche marinare. Spesso si sente parlare delle 5 repubbliche marinare, aggiungendo Ragusa, che ebbe un ruolo importante nel commercio del Medioevo nel Mediterraneo Orientale. A differenza delle altre città che erano sotto il controllo di un re, le 4 repubbliche marinare erano controllate da mercanti e avevano maggiore indipendenza:

  • avevano una propria moneta d’oro;
  • utilizzavano navi veloci costruite da loro per solcare il Mar Mediterraneo;
  • utilizzavano i fondachi, magazzini per i mercanti stranieri ai quali spesso davano anche alloggio;
  • avevano un gruppo di consoli, dei rappresentanti della città nei vari porti del Mediterraneo.


Cosa sono le repubbliche marinare?

Dopo aver visto quali sono le repubbliche marinare, andiamo a vedere nel dettaglio la loro funzione durante il Medioevo.
All’epoca la repubblica marinara era una città dotata di indipendenza sotto diversi punti di vista:

  • in economia e politica erano autonomi dalle altre città e basate sulla navigazione e scambi marittimi;
  • avevano l’organizzazione di una città-stato;
  • avevano un governo repubblicano;
  • partecipavano attivamente alle Crociate e praticavano la pirateria.

Le quattro repubbliche marinare erano delle repubbliche oligarchiche, rette dalle famiglie mercantili, ecco perché spesso a queste città viene dato anche l’appellativo di repubbliche mercantili. Inizialmente le repubbliche marinare italiane nascono per difendersi dagli attacchi dei saraceni e contrastare il dominio degli arabi nel Mediterraneo. Successivamente stabiliscono postazioni lungo tutto il Mediterraneo e arrivano persino a commerciare con gli arabi e i bizantini diventando il centro dei commerci tra Europa e mondo arabo-bizantino.

Leggi anche: Maometto e l’Islam: chi era il profeta della religione islamica

Le repubbliche marinare italiane: Amalfi

Una delle prime città a mostrare il suo dominio nei mari fu Amalfi, che diventa completamente indipendente dal Ducato di Napoli nell’839, anno in cui il principe di Benevento Sicardo, in lotta con i Bizantini, espugna la città e deporta la popolazione. Dopo la sua morte gli amalfitani si ribellano e dopo aver cacciato dalla città i Longobardi creano la repubblica libera di Amalfi.
I punti di forza di questa città marinara sono:

  • importare tessuti dall’Oriente;
  • esportare olio d’oliva;
  • commerciare con città molto forti all’epoca come Costantinopoli e l’Egitto.

Alla repubblica marinara di Amalfi dobbiamo le Tavole Amalfitane, il più antico statuto marittimo, utilizzato in tutto il Mediterraneo dall’XI al XVI secolo. Le Tavole Amalfitane erano un codice marittimo contenente norme che regolamentavano i traffici, i commerci e il comportamento da tenere nell’equipaggio.

Leggi anche: Il feudalesimo: le caratteristiche del sistema feudale

Venezia, la città marinara più importante

Tra le repubbliche marinare, Venezia è stata senza dubbio la più importante dato che con gli scambi commerciali riuscì a stringere legami con l’Impero bizantino, a dominare i commerci nell’Adriatico e Mediterraneo orientale e ad espandersi sulla terraferma, dal Veneto, alla Lombardia, alla Dalmazia. Tra le quattro città marinare Venezia deve la sua espansione al commercio con l’Adriatico e all’aver posto sotto il suo dominio le città di Istria e Dalmazia, liberate dai pirati. Come le altre città marinare nel Medioevo, Venezia era controllata da famiglie di mercanti, guidate dal doge e articolate in magistrature come il Senato. Dal 1297 poi con la Serrata del Maggior Consiglio, furono esclusi dal governo tutti coloro che non appartenevano alle famiglie mercantili.

le repubbliche marinare

Le quattro repubbliche marinare Amalfi, Pisa, Venezia e Genova si dedicarono al commercio rendendosi indipendenti dall’imperatore.

Leggi anche: La guerra franco prussiana: cause ed effetti degli scontri

Le repubbliche marinare di Pisa e Genova

Altre due città marinare che durante il Medioevo vissero un periodo di piena espansione sono Pisa e Genova, che per la loro vicinanza ebbero molti scambi commerciali. Mentre però all’inizio i rapporti tra le città marinare italiane furono di collaborazione, specie contro il nemico comune musulmano, successivamente iniziarono ad entrare in contrasto tra di loro per avere il dominio nel Mediterraneo. Una delle battaglie fu la Battaglia della Meloria datata 1284, che vide i genovesi vincitori. Durante questo scontro i prigionieri pisani furono chiusi nelle carceri di Malapaga e tra questi ci furono il poeta Rustichello da Pisa e Marco Polo.
Dopo la sconfitta subita, i pisani non riusciranno mai più a conquistare il dominio nel Mediterraneo e i dissapori tra le due città marinare, un tempo alleato, si risolsero solo dopo l’Unità d’Italia.
repubblica marinara
Leggi anche: Le crociate: cause e conseguenze delle guerre sante

Come cambia la vita in città con l’espansione delle repubbliche marinare?

L’espandersi dei commerci porta le città a creare le fiere, dei grandi mercati periodici, come quelle della Champagne e delle Fiandre. Inoltre si inizia ad utilizzare la moneta come mezzo di scambio. In questo periodo poi si diffondono i banchi dei cambiavalute, che accettavano depositi di denaro e concedevano prestiti in cambio di un interesse, come degli antenati delle banche moderne.
Durante lo sviluppo delle quattro repubbliche marinare non si sviluppano solo i commerci con l’estero ma anche i lavori degli artigiani che nelle botteghe svolgono anche lavori di apprendistato per i giovani apprendisti. Gli artigiani che producevano gli stessi oggetti si univano in associazioni, le Corporazioni.

Durante il Medioevo quindi i mercanti e gli artigiani acquisiscono potere mentre i contadini e i piccoli nobili dalle campagne si trasferiscono in città. Il risveglio economico delle 4 città marinare porta anche ad aumentare il livello di scolarizzazione e alla nascita di scuole laiche e Università. A poco a poco le lingue volgari prendono il posto del latino, che viene utilizzato solo dai dotti e dalla Chiesa.
Infine con la crescita economica dei commercianti i nobili e i piccoli feudatari diventano sempre meno potenti, mentre la borghesia mercantile e finanziaria si divide in alta, piccola e media borghesia. La prima formata dal popolo grasso, alta borghesia ricca ma non aristocratica, mentre la piccola borghesia è quella formata dal popolo minuto, artigiani non organizzati in corporazioni, ma lavoratori salariati e la plebe.

Leggi anche: Qui troverai le risposte a tante domande e dubbi sulla grammatica.

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