Le proposizioni relative: come riconoscere tali proposizioni e come si classificano?

La proposizione relativa rientra nelle preposizioni subordinate e ha valore attributivo o appositivo. Vediamo quali regole seguire per costruire correttamente le frasi con tale proposizione ed esempi.

proposizione relativa

Proposizioni relative: definiamo i concetti

La proposizione relativa completa il significato della reggente detto antecedente.
Un esempio di frase relativa è:
Ho visto un documentario che è davvero interessante.
Come riconoscere una proposizione relativa? Il metodo più efficace è ricordare che la proposizione relativa è introdotta da:

  • pronomi relativi: che, il quale, la quale ecc..
  • avverbi relativi: dove= il luogo in cui ecc..
  • pronomi o aggettivi misti: chi, chiunque ecc..

Forme e modi verbali: le relative implicite ed esplicite

La proposizione relativa può avere forma implicita o esplicita.
Le relative esplicite sono introdotte:

  • da pronomi relativi: che, il quale, cui ecc..
  • da pronomi o aggettivi doppi: chi, qualsiasi, qualunque, qualsiasi ecc..
  • avverbi usati come congiunzione: dove, dovunque ecc..

Le relative esplicite hanno il verbo:

  • all’indicativo: nel caso della realtà o certezza: Ho conosciuto una persona che può aiutarti.
  • al congiuntivo: nel caso del dubbio, del timore, del desiderio: Sto cercando una persona che possa aiutarti.
  • al condizionale: nel caso della possibilità: Ho telefonato a una persona che potrebbe aiutarti.

Le relative implicite se hanno il verbo all’infinito sono introdotte

  • dalle preposizioni da, a: Giovanni è stato il primo a rispondere alle domande dell’insegnate.
  • da pronomi relativi con valore di complemento indiretto: cui, a cui, del quale: Ho incontrato la persona a cui affidare il lavoro = alla quale posso affidare il lavoro..

Se invece la proposizione relativa implicita ha il verbo al modo participio non è introdotta da nessun elemento: La pizza cotta nel forno a legna è stata gustata da tutti = che era stata cotta nel forno
Inoltre per comprendere gli usi del che, pronome relativo, frequentemente utilizzato nelle preposizioni relative, clicca qui.

proposizioni relative

Le relative esplicite sono introdotte: da pronomi relativi: che, il quale, cui ecc.. da pronomi o aggettivi doppi: chi, qualsiasi, qualunque, qualsiasi ecc.. avverbi usati come congiunzione: dove, dovunque ecc.. Le relative implicite se hanno il verbo all’infinito sono introdotte dalle preposizioni da, a; da pronomi relativi con valore di; complemento indiretto: cui, a cui, del quale.

Leggi anche: Coordinazione e subordinazione: regole per riconoscere le proposizioni principali e reggenti

Proposizione relativa propria e impropria: quali sono le differenze?

La proposizione relativa propria è introdotta dal pronome relativo e, come spiegato nei paragrafi precedenti può avere forma implicita o esplicita e avere una funzione appositiva o attributiva, dando quindi informazioni aggiuntive al nome.
Le preposizioni relative improprie invece hanno sempre il predicato al modo congiuntivo e possono avere funzione e significato di altre proposizioni subordinate.

frase relativa

La proposizione relativa propria è introdotta dal pronome relativo e può avere una funzione appositiva o attributiva, dando quindi informazioni aggiuntive al nome. Le preposizioni relative improprie invece hanno sempre il predicato al modo congiuntivo e possono avere funzione e significato di altre proposizioni subordinate. Sono relative improprie: le relative causali, finali, temporali, le relative consecutive, le relative concessive e le relative condizionali.

Sono relative improprie:

  • le relative causali: esprimono il motivo per cui si svolge l’azione della reggente: Tutti apprezzano te che sei il più diligente = perché sei il più diligente;
  • le relative finali: esprimono lo scopo per cui si svolge l’azione della reggente: Cerco una sarta che mi ripari questo vestito = affinché mi ripari;
  • le relative temporali: indicano il momento in cui si svolge l’azione della reggente: Ho visto Mario che passeggiava = mentre passeggiava;
  • le relative consecutive: indicano la conseguenza di azione precedente: Ho bisogno di un computer che possa avere anche un modem = tale che possa;
  • le relative concessive: indicano un fatto nonostante il quale si verifica quanto detto nella reggente: Luigi, che pure ha studiato tanto, ha fatto male il compito.
  • le relative condizionali: esprimono la condizione in cui potrebbe realizzarsi l’azione: Un giovane che non conosca almeno una lingua straniera oggi non troverebbe lavoro = se non conoscesse.

Le proposizioni relative in latino è una subordinata che, così come in italiano è legata alla reggente tramite un pronome relativo (qui, quae, quod) avverbi o aggettivi relativi (ubi, quo, qua). Così come in italiano, anche in latino si ha la distinzione tra relative proprie e improprie.

Leggi anche: La proposizione soggettiva e oggettiva: regole ed esempi pratici

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