Il numero dei nomi: i nomi invariabili, difettivi e sovrabbondanti

Per la formazione del plurale esistono tre tipologie di nomi oltre a quelli che variano in genere e numero: i nomi invariabili, difettivi e sovrabbondanti. I primi non variano la forma tra il singolare e il plurale, i nomi difettivi ‘difettano’ di una forma mentre i sovrabbondanti hanno più di una forma al plurale o al singolare. Vediamo nel dettaglio le definizioni e esempi di nomi del genere.

nomi difettivi

Cosa sono i nomi invariabili? La formazione ed esempi

I nomi invariabili mantengono la stessa forma al singolare e al plurale modificando solo l’articolo nel passaggio di numero.
Quali sono i nomi invariabili? Ecco una guida accurata:

  • i nomi monosillabi come il re/i rela gru/le gru;
  • i nomi che al singolare terminano in -i come il bisturi/i bisturila crisi/le crisi;
  • i nomi di origine straniera che terminano in consonante come il bar/i baril fil,/i film;
  • alcuni nomi maschili che terminano in -a come il gorilla/i gorillail cinema/i cinema;
  • alcuni nomi femminili che terminano in -o come la moto/le motol’auto/le auto;
  • tutti i cognomi come i Ferro o i Rossi.

I nomi difettivi: definiamo i concetti

I nomi difettivi sono nomi che mancano o del singolare o del plurale. Sono detti così perché “difettano” di una delle due forme.
Sono utilizzati solo nella forma singolare alcuni nomi come gli esempi riportati di seguito:

  • i nomi astratti come fame, sete, bontà, lealtà;
  • i nomi che indicano oggetti unici in natura come equatore, est, ovest;
  • i nomi di alcune malattie come morbillo, scarlattina, tifo;
  • i nomi di massa, i nomi non numerabili che indicano sostanze o materie considerate genericamente come acciaio, argento, vino, ma in alcune accezioni particolari questi si possono usare al plurale come i vini francesi, i ferri del mestiere.

Alcuni nomi difettivi sono usati soltanto al plurale come forbici, occhiali, calzoni, pantaloni, stoviglie, dimissioni ecc..

Leggi anche: Le congiunzioni: quali sono, le funzione e le diverse forme

I nomi sovrabbondanti: caratteristiche e usi più frequenti

I nomi sovrabbondanti presentano non una sola, ma più forme al plurale o al singolare.
I nomi sovrabbondanti al plurale di uso più frequente sono:
nomi sovrabbondanti
Per altri nomi sovrabbondanti non esiste differenza di significato tra le due forme, come per il ginocchio/i ginocchi o le ginocchia; il sopracciglio/ i sopraccigli o le sopracciglia; l’orecchio/gli orecchi o le orecchie.
In questi casi l’uso di una o l’altra forma per il plurale è utilizzabile dato che sono accettati entrambi gli usi.
Sono sovrabbondanti al singolare: il legno (il materiale), la legna (il legname da ardere), il frutto (prodotto da un albero), la frutta (insieme di vari frutti).

numero dei nomi

I nomi sovrabbondanti presentano non una sola, ma più forme al plurale o al singolare. Per altri nomi sovrabbondanti non esiste differenza di significato tra le due forme, come per il ginocchio/i ginocchi o le ginocchia.In questi casi l’uso di una o l’altra forma per il plurale è soggettiva dato che sono accettati entrambi gli usi.

Leggi anche: Il pronome: le caratteristiche e tutte le classificazioni dei pronomi


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